Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Computer science and information technology Essay Example for Free

Computer science and information technology Essay The hard work and determination to create opportunities for change remains to be the main inspiration of man towards the attainment of his personal goals and objectives. They use these experiences as motivation and strength to further advance in their respective fields. Not only does it enhance their capabilities as an individual, at the same time it provides the necessary stepladder in attaining success. With these, I wish to express my intention to apply for a PhD degree in Web Engineering Technology. The realm of computer science and information technology has always fascinated me. It stimulated my mind of this complex processes that happens within for a particular system to work. This complexities and possibilities have made me keen of the possible opportunities that are yet to be discovered or formulated. This however, can only be facilitated by further education and research. Looking at my educational background, I finished my Bachelor of Science in Computer Science. After this, I began teaching students about the things I had learned during my study. Given my good academic standing, I was given a full scholarship by my country to study in the United States. This proved to be too good to be true for me as it can help me achieve my long term goals better my skills and competence in the field. Being an international student, I was faced with numerous struggles and difficulties adjusting. But my hard work paid off. Now, I am currently finishing my last semester to complete my Masters degree in Computer Science. I can say that this experience enhanced my interpersonal and leadership skills which I can effectively apply in practice. Now, it is my utmost intention to pursue a PhD program and focus on the field of Web design Technology. I chose this specialization because I am greatly interested in the increasing number of techniques and strategies available in Web Design. Likewise, I had familiarized myself with this study and hope that in the future I can be able to provide a lot of research in my chosen field of profession. In the end, this stepping stone is a vital process towards my personal fulfillment and professional success.

Lutzs Cognitive Learning Process

Lutzs Cognitive Learning Process The WALTHAM Centre for Pet Care and Nutrition leads the research pack. They are proud to say that name after the Leicestershire town where Pedigree UK has its headquarters. It is the worlds leading authority on pet care and nutrition. Those of the researches into dogs nutritional requirements are sponsored by WALTHAM . This could lead to academics and pet experts. The experts in Pedigree product development and nutrition work closely with the scientists and researchers at the WALTHAM Centre for Pet Nutrition. Pedigree food for dogs is works with WALTHAM to develop and produce recipes with exceptional nutritional value. Pedigree is a nonprofit organization. It is dedicated to helping dogs find loving homes. Pedigree brand believes that every dog deserves a loving home. They also believe that every dog deserves leading nutrition. It is identified through the review on research studies on the requirements of dogs of different breeds, size and life stages. Based on the researches from WALTHAM Centre for Pet Centre for Pet Nutrition, it identified the four universal needs for dogs which are skin and coat, oral care, digestion and immunity. Besides that, there are many types of products are included in the dry product line which includes eight different product options. The products are PEDIGREE Adult Complete Nutrition, PEDIGREE PUPPY Complete Nutrition, PEDIGREE SMALL BREED Nutrition, PEDIGREE LARGE BREED Nutrition, PEDIGREE Health Longevity, PEDIGREE Healthy Weight, PEDIGREE Healthy Joints and PEDIGREE Wholesome Nutrition with Chicken, Rice Vegetables. Objective The effective communication between producers and consumers is one of the real main objectives of advertising. First of all, creation of demand is one of the objectives for Pedigree advertisement. In order to induce new customers and maintain their old customers to purchase Pedigree product, advertisement of Pedigree inform them its qualities and create a favorable climate for maintaining of improving sales. This will also increases the market receptiveness of the Pedigrees products. Furthermore, Pedigree advertisement that played in the television such as 8TV, ASTRO and etc channels is to remind the public. This is a continuous process of persuading the perspective customers with results in purchase of good. It is also can reminds the public about the existence of the Pedigree products in the market. The Pedigree advertisement shown the advantages for consumer purchase Pedigree products for their dogs. Besides that, short and simple information about Pedigree products is shown in the advertisement. This information is given to prospective buyers in respect of particular product or service through the advertisement. In this competitive market, Pedigree advertisements can help to build up Pedigree brand image and brand loyalty. This is where they can differentiate with the competitors. Pedigree aired this advertisement on television is to deliver the five signs of good health of Pedigree products to the audience of television. Each of every signs of good health is being point out in the advertisement. Product Features Pedigree product features are well explained in the advertisement. The name of the advertisement is called Pedigree 5 signs of good health TVC. The dog that Pedigree used to advertise in the commercial is called olive. It is look like a healthy dog breed. From the Pedigree advertisement can see that Olive become a healthy dog after six weeks of consumed Pedigree products. This Pedigree advertisement shown that dog deserves a healthy change like Olive. There are four universal needs of dogs which are skin and coat, oral care, digestion and immunity. This is one of the Pedigree product features is to let people know and attract dog owner to purchase Pedigree products that can change their dogs health. The Pedigree first sign of good health is stronger teeth. Olive has a clean gums and teeth after consuming Pedigree for six weeks. The number one health issue for pet dogs today is gum disease. Stronger muscle is the second sign of good health. In the advertisement, this can see that Olive run better with the protein provided in the Pedigree product. Furthermore, after feeding Olive with Pedigree products for six weeks, it produces quality of firm stool which can be seen in the advertisement. This is known that Olive has a good dietary system which contains of fiber. Olive has a healthy skin and smooth coat after consuming Pedigree. It is shown in the advertisement where the little girl can lay on Olive as her pillow. The fifth sign of Pedigree good health is cheerful and active. From the advertisement can see that Olive enjoys and have a great time playing with the little girl. The scene is at the playground with little girl holding a ball in her hand. Besides from the Pedigree five signs of good health, it also encourage people participate the campaign with shown register from 1 May 15 July 2012 and sign up on the Pedigree Malaysia Facebook in the advertisement. Appeal and Proposition The advertising appeals that used by Pedigree for their advertisement is feature appeal. This appeal is categorized as one of the information or rational appeals. Pedigree advertisement mainly showed the benefits of feeding dogs with Pedigree products and how good the product is. This advertisement tends to show the five most basic advantages for dogs after consuming Pedigree for 6 weeks. Pedigree can gained more customers confident by releasing this advertisement on television. It is quite an informative advertisement after viewing it compare to others. Pedigree advertisement also might persuade a dog owner to change his or her brands of food for their dog. Unique The unique of Pedigree advertisement is make a change for dogs health life. Dog owner always need to find a right food for their dogs in term of type, life stage, size and specific need. There are also sub category that under all this terms. Pedigree brand dry dog food has been improved based on the four most basic and important needs for dogs such as digestibility, skin and coat, oral care and immunity. Pedigree develops recipes with exceptional nutritional value based on the WALTHAM research as the basis for its recent dog food reformulation. Besides that, with the leading nutrition in the Pedigree products help dogs have a healthy digestion. This is shown in the advertisement that Olive has a firm stools after feeding with Pedigree Products for six weeks later. In the overall health and well-being of the dog, diet digestibility plays a large role in it. Dog need a proper digestion of the diet to live a healthy and enriched its life. This also impacts the quality and amount of stool that is produced by the dog. Dogs most metabolically active organ is their skin and coat. It is because it serves as an outward sign of the overall health status of the dog. In the advertisement, we can see that Olive skin change to a very smooth fur after six weeks later. The skin and coat play a much larger role in canine health. This is because it requires many nutrients and heavily participates in the dogs metabolism. Pedigree products that shown in the advertisement make the dog owner feel like switching their dogs food to pedigree brand. This can be proved in the advertisement that Olive becomes active dog after feeding with Pedigree products. There are interactive guides for the process or changing by just following the simple steps. Dog owner cannot change a dogs diet too quickly because this could make the dogs tummy unhappy and can cause the dog suffer from stomachache and diarrhea. This is also a reason why it might take a week for the transition period. Furthermore, Pedigree advertisement is different from competitors. It is because seldom can see food for dog advertisement in television except Pedigree. Pedigree advertisement showed in ASTRO channels for two different language versions based on the channels itself which are Chinese and English. In this Pedigree advertisement showed all the special of the brand and how the dog change after six weeks if it consume Pedigree products. Pedigree advertisement seems to be unique in a way that seldom television audiences get to watch Pedigree competitors commercial in any of the channels. This brings a great advantage to Pedigree after they showed their advertisement in television. Pedigree have a great product image of food for dog in the audience mindset because the frequent brand they heard and watched before, the more likely they will purchase for their dog as well. Benefits One of the benefits of Pedigree advertisement is that dogs become healthier and stronger after feeding with Pedigree products. In the Pedigree advertisement, we can see that Olive turn to have a stronger muscle and bigger in size after six weeks. This can convince the dog owner to purchase Pedigree after they watched the advertisement. In addition, with the 5 changes on Olive that we can see from the Pedigree advertisement can conclude that it is a good transform on dog after six weeks of feeding. In this transformation period and at the end can provide dog owner better lifestyle on their dog. Dog owner no need to have extra take care of their dog after the six weeks. From the Pedigree advertisement, we can see that Pedigree product can help the dog owner save cost. This is because they just need to purchase specialized Pedigree product for their dogs based on their dogs need rather than few products combining. There is a disadvantage of mixing the food for dogs can cause their dietary problem and at the time Pedigree can help the dog owner save money for sending the dogs to vet. Moreover, in the end of the advertisement shown sign up now on the Pedigree Malaysia Facebook, this is because Pedigree is giving 100 deserving dogs six weeks worth of Pedigree products for them to attain the Pedigree 5 signs of good health. There is time limitation for this contest which is in between 1 May to 15 July 2012. In a shorter time of six weeks, a dog can transform itself to a healthy body and lifestyle. This is one of the benefits of Pedigree products that shown in the advertisement. The shorter time it took can be an advantage of winning from the competitors. Potency The potency for Pedigree Advertisement is that it is a product that every dog owner need for their dogs. It is effective enough of this advertisement where it can influence the dog owner switch their food for dog brands after watching it. This also can remind the dog owner that they can change their dog health care after six weeks consuming Pedigree products. With the 5 signs of good health shown in the advertisement, it is attractive to describe how good the product is. By watching the Pedigree advertisement, it might attract the audience to change the brands of food for dog to Pedigree. Lutzs Cognitive Learning Process There are four steps in the Lutzs cognitive leaning process. The first phase of the process is ad exposure. The Pedigree advertisement is being exposed through the television channels such as 8TV, ASTRO and etc channels. This advertisement usually played on the peak hour time. It is means that during night time around 8pm to 11pm this hours in between. This is also the time most audience is on for their television time. In the cognitive responses phase, Pedigree advertisement is based on the product or message thoughts. It is because from the advertisement we can see that Pedigree trying to deliver informative message to the audience about the five signs of good health after feeding dogs with Pedigree products. The message is been deliver in a success way which include of a sample success dog called olive and a little girl. Next, it is the attitudes phase. This is mean what kind of attitudes that dog owner who watched the Pedigree advertisement going to possess. It is either they continue with the brand they feeding their dog now or change to Pedigree by purchasing it. Pedigree also can influence the new dog owner to try on their products with the advertisement. Lastly, the purchase intent phase is that dog owner will purchase the product if they think that Pedigree might suitable for their dog after watching the advertisement shown in the television and some information research done in internet. They will walk into any outlets of selling Pedigree products for product checking that suitable for their dog and make a purchase on it. Target Audience / Segmentation There are two different language version of Pedigree advertisement which is English and Chinese. The English version of Pedigree advertisement is being aired on television in 8TV channel. It is showed around 8pm to 11pm from April 2012. This Pedigree advertisement is being played on this time is because most of audience will on their television watching news and drama at this hour after their dinner. Pedigree decided to advertise in 8TV channel is because most of the 8TV audience is Chinese and Pedigree is a food for dog where only Chinese and Indian who will adopt a dog in their house or garden. The target audience of this Pedigree advertisement is primarily focus on those Chinese dog owner or dog lover. It is because most of the dog owner is Chinese or Indian. Malay is not allowed to adopt dog as their pet and they hate dog as well. At this hour advertisement played on the television channel, most of the dog owner or audiences will have their relaxing time after a busy day. The secondary target audience of Pedigree advertisement is that audience who wish to have a dog. By watching this advertisement, they will know which brand of food going to buy for their dog in future. This can build a good brand image of Pedigree in the future customer mindset. Pedigree advertisement targeted on this two group of audiences, it is because they are more likely to have interest on Pedigree advertisement and probably will have a deeper research on the information and decide to purchase Pedigree brands of product or other. Pedigree can segment their market based on demographic segmentation. It can be segment based on the race. There are three races in our country which are Chinese, Malay and Indian. From the Pedigree advertisement, we can see that the Chinese little girl does not afraid of the dog Olive and playing around with it. This is because Pedigree brands is selling food for dog and most of Chinese like to adopt dog as their pet in the house. Some of Chinese even treat dog like their children. This is the segment that Pedigree is targeted. Besides that, Pedigree also can segment based on the group of age. There are few categories group of age such as young kids and teens, adults and senior citizen. In the advertisement, Pedigree used a little girl in it maybe because they want deliver that even a little girl is not afraid of dogs. Pedigree can target on the adults because in the busy city life, most of dog owner like to adopt a dog as their partner in the house. Moreover, Pedigree can segment based on psychographic segmentation that focus on the lifestyle. From the advertisement, we can see that the little girl playing around with Olive in a big garden where Olive chasing the little girl with a ball on her ball. This can showed that at some stage lifestyle of people who can afford to adopt a medium size dog like Olive. Those dog owners mostly are stay at land house where there have place for their dog in the garden or car park area. Behavioral segmentation can be segment for this Pedigree advertisement. Dog owner who want a change on their dogs health will put more attention on Pedigree products. From the Pedigree advertisement, it can see that the heath changes on Olive after six weeks of feeding it with Pedigree products. Audience also can participate with the contest on Pedigree five signs of good health for their dogs. This can help them discover the benefits and advantages of having Pedigree products for their dog. Inferences Pedigree is really a good food for dog with the leading nutrition and recipes that based on the research from The WALTHAM Centre for Pet Nutrition. From the advertisement, we can see that Pedigree use a little girl as the ambassador in the commercial. Olive is the dog that Pedigree used it as the main role in the advertisement. This Pedigree advertisement is a twenty second commercial that aired on television. Pedigree product is being showed together with Olive consuming the dry food in the pots at the first second of the television commercial. At the first scene of this advertisement, little girl said thanks to Pedigree because it change Olives health. The Pedigree five signs of good health had change Olive in six week. From the Pedigree advertisement, found that the little girl is happy for the Olive changes by hugging it. There are five main inferences that get from this Pedigree advertisement. First of all, it is the stronger teeth of Olive. In the advertisement, we can see that the little girl pull up Olives mouth to show its teeth and tongue for the title of it. This can be proved that Pedigree can change dogs teeth after consuming its product after six weeks. Oral care for a dog is very important because they have different needs on the tooth development. Dog need to have a good oral hygiene program to maintain their good oral health with few components which include daily tooth brushing, routine dental exams and cleanings, as well as specially designed foods and chews. Olive have this oral health concern from the owner makes it healthier teeth after six weeks. The second inference that gets from Pedigree advertisement is that stronger muscle. In the advertisement, we can see that Olive can run very fast in the garden. The immune system of Olive is very important for dogs help to keep it healthy. Although it is an incredibly complex system with the comprised of several types of cells that works together to fight off. Dogs must supplement their diet with appropriate of antioxidant levels that is include in the Pedigree products to strengthened the dogs natural defenses. With the television commercial of Pedigree, it delivered that dogs can have a better immune system like Olive with the nutrition that provided in the packets of Pedigree products after feeding the dogs with that. Furthermore, the firm stools of a dog are very important. From the advertisement, we can see that the little girl is look surprised on the stools that process out by Olive. It is because Pedigree has changes Olive health after six weeks of consuming. The stools that shown in the advertisement are being censored replace by animation for the good sake of the audiences. The proper digestion system of a dog only can process out a firm stools. Pedigree products with the four most basic and important needs in it can help the changes in every dogs. The improved nutrient digestibility leads to an increase in the amount of nutrients available for use by the dog. The firm stools of Olive that shown in the advertisement is a sign that the dog is properly digesting and absorbing nutrients that including water from the gastrointestinal tract. Next, it is the healthy skin and coat. In the Pedigree advertisement, we can see that little girl is lying on Olives body and showing the skin and coat of it. Little girl touch Olives skin by delivering the message of dogs skin and coat will become very smooth like Olive after feeding them with Pedigree products. The change of health status of every dog can be observed first in the skin and coat. Skin and coat of the dogs provide some of function such as protection, immunity, thermoregulation, hydration and nutrient storage. The nutrients in the Pedigree products can increase the skin and coat health of dogs and at the mean time maintaining barrier function, participating in healthy cell turnover and producing a shinier coat. This can be observed through the Pedigree advertisement of the Olives skin and coat. It is shiny and warm of coat. The fifth sign of good health of dog is become cheerful and active after feeding with Pedigree products. From the advertisement, we can see Olive is happy and healthy now. The changes make on Olive also happen at the same time to the dog owner. Little girl can enjoy playing with active Olive where she has a partner to play with when she is bored. The four important basic needs in the Pedigree products have make dogs big difference in their lifestyle. Other than that, Pedigree advertisement also gives inference to audience that there is contest running by Pedigree. Pedigree released few examples of successful transform after six weeks to healthy dog pictures with their name on the bottom of the picture. The date of the registration for the contest named 5 signs of good health is shown in the advertisement to remind the audience when it is start and end. Pedigree Malaysia Facebook is where the audience supposed to register for their dogs. This also encourage audience to purchase Pedigree products for their dog for as an experience of changes. The music background that played in the whole twenty second of the advertisement is the theme song of Pedigree. Lastly, Pedigree brand logo is shown throughout the whole 20 second of advertisement.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë Essay -- Charlotte Brontë Jane Eyre

Jane Eyre Jane Eyre, a classic Victorian novel by Charlotte Brontà «, is regarded as one of the finest novels in English literature. The main character, Jane Eyre, demonstrates a strong need to be herself, a young girl trying to retain all the individuality possible for a dependent of her time. Although this effort guides her to a passionate and impulsive nature, Jane is still willing to accept change in her life knowing it may not always seem the most pleasant. Her tolerance of change begins very early in the novel and helps her in developing a strong sense of independence. The first two primary changes in Jane’s life, dealing mainly with setting, are when she leaves Gateshead Hall, the hateful environment containing Mrs. Reed and her children, and when she leaves Lowood, a rigorous Christian boarding school. These two instances are important in the development of her self-assured character and resiliently intense resolve, which will help determine the path of her life. Janeâ⠂¬â„¢s leaving Gateshead and Jane’s leaving Lowood may be compared on the basis of Jane’s desire for change, and may be contrasted on the bases of the reasons for Jane’s leaving and her anticipations for leaving. In each instance of Jane’s departure, whether from Gateshead or from Lowood, she desires change: something new to experience. Before Jane leaves Gateshead, she is even more shut out by the Reeds’ due to the holiday season of Christmas. Because of this extreme separation between her and the ever hardening Reeds, Jane is expecting not to be tolerated among them for much longer (20-22). This prospect elevating her spirits, she narrates, â€Å"I gathered enough of hope to suffice as a motive for wishing to get well: a change seemed near—I desired... ... to embark on a †new life in the unknown† (85). Jane’s leaving Gateshead and her departure from Lowood are the most important two events in her life playing a role in the shaping of her personality. This personality, one of strength, resilience, and spirit, can be regarded as one of the best developed in literature. Jane’s desire, in both cases, leads to the reasons for her departure. Once she knows she is departing, her anticipations, always of something better than the present, guide her and help her survive. After everything, she undoubtedly has a better life with a true sense of satisfaction and gratification. Understanding these two changes in her life can lead to a better explanation of the rest of her life: the path she chooses, decisions she makes, how she interacts with her surroundings, and how she finds happiness ever after: the best part of all.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Societal Lessons in Julius Caesar :: miscellaneous

Societal Lessons in Julius Caesar Many authors try to convey different lessons that we, as individuals or a society can learn from their writings. William Shakespeare, in his play Julius Caesar, has definitely accomplished this goal. With the many lessons included in this story, society can learn from the mistakes of others made previously. It could be said that the actions of society are learned by the actions of our predecessors. In this incredible play, the major messages or societal lessons include mob mentality, respect, and wealth and power are the roots of all evil. Shakespeare realized that people behave differently in mobs. One individual can sway the opinions of everyone present by convincing just one person in the group. This is called mob mentality. In Act III, Scene II, Brutus speaks to the masses and explains why Caesar had to be slain for the good of Rome. Then, Brutus leaves and Antony speaks to the citizens. A far better judge of human nature than Brutus, Antony cleverly manages to turn the crowd against the conspirators by telling them of Caesar's good works and his concern for the people. Another hideous act of the mob was the killing of Cinna the poet. They realize that he is the wrong Cinna, but they are so enraged, they slay him anyway. Although revenge is a major concept in this play, respect is another important theme. After Brutus kills himself, Antony says "This was the noblest Roman of them all: all the conspirators save only he did what they did in envy of great Caesar; he only in a general honest thought and common good to all, made one of them." This quote means that Antony regarded Brutus as an honorable man, despite the fact that he killed Caesar. Antony also understood that Brutus killed Caesar for the good of Rome and not because of jealousy or hatred. Octavious then comments ".with all respect and rites of burial. Within my tent his bones to-night shall lie, most like a soldier, order'd honourably." The men wish for his body to lie in their tent for the night, and then they will give him proper burial rites. One last lesson in this tragedy is wealth and powers are the roots of all evil. This statement applies mainly to Caesar himself, but can also be stretched to custom fit the conspirators. Caesar is a high and mighty man who appeals to all the common people of Rome, but Brutus and his men feel that his power has become too great.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

A Reading of ?Those Winter Sundays? Essays -- essays research papers

A Reading of â€Å"Those Winter Sundays† In Robert Hayden’s poem â€Å"Those Winter Sundays† a relationship between the speaker and the speaker’s father is expressed in short but descriptive detail, revealing a kind of love that had gone unnoticed for so long. Throughout the poem, Hayden’s use of connotative diction keeps the poem short and sweet yet packed with significant meaning. The evocative sound patterns play just as great a role setting the harsh and reflective tone of the poem. Together, these devices are used to effectively deliver the poem. The speaker seems now to be a grown man, though it is not distinguished in the poem, remembering the distant relationship he had with his father as an adolescent. He would wake every morning to the warmth of a fire despite the biting cold which lay beyond the house windows and doors. The speaker took for granted the heat that he was provided, not acknowledging the effort that went into giving this simple expression of love. Now looking back, he seems to regret not being thankful for his father’s actions and being so blind and ignorant to the love that was right in front of him. From the very first words of the poem, the connotative diction gives the reader an idea of the direction in which the poem in going. â€Å"Sundays too my father got up early† (line 1), where the poem begins, expresses the fathers hard-working nature. The fact that he gets out of bed every day of the work-week and Sundays too, shows that his job as a father and provider...

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Public Health Core Functions Health And Social Care Essay

In 1988, the Institute of Medicine made a study ( IOM, 1988 ) on â€Å" The Future of Public Health † which fundamentally changed the manner public wellness was planned in the USA. The commission that was set up recommended in that study that wellness bureaus for the province degrees should escalate their managerial capablenesss in three indispensable functional countries which are assessment, policy development and confidence. The rise in attending to managerial competency has gone with the rise in involvement in tracking, quantifying and bettering the appraisal of wellness impact of authorities bureaus in the USA, ( Wang, 2002 ) in other states that are developed ( Kemm, 2000 ) and all over the universe ( Sim, and Mackie, 2003 ) . In the United States of America, the attempt got to a serious degree when the â€Å" Healthy people 2000 † was published and is turning continuously. Considerable advancement has been achieved in associating specific ends for the betterment of the wellness of the population like the rate of testing malignant neoplastic disease and immunisation to specific managerial activities like the development of human resources through plans like the Turning Point Performance Management Collaborative ( Public Health Foundation, 2002 ) . On the other manus, these plans do n't cover with some holistic inquiries on public wellness ( Kemm, 2000 ) like is it obligatory to be competent in all three maps, or is being adept in one or two adequate to achieve betterment in wellness position that is above-average? The Institute of Medicine conducts two national plans for kids. This is geared towards the betterment of the edifice blocks of the kids. The plans are School Breakfast Program ( SBP ) and the National School Lunch Program ( NSLP ) . These plans play of import parts in helping the wellness and nutrition of school pupils in the United States by offering low-cost or free tiffins that are balanced nutritionally each school twenty-four hours. In 2008, the School Breakfast Program ( SBP ) gave breakfast to 10.5 million kids while over 30.5 million kids received tiffin from the National School Lunch Program ( NSLP ) . At present, to acquire compensation from federal, school repasts must run into the 1995 established ordinances for criterions of nutrition and demands for repast. In the old ages, developments have been made in dietetic counsel since those guidelines were set up. The manner in which demands for repast are monitored and implemented will determine whether pupils take portion in SBP and NSLP and eat the nutrient that is given to them. Critical schemes of execution to advance alteration and increase the engagement of pupil in the plan include affecting the school as an entity, affecting parents, pupils, and the populace ; educating the pupils on nutrition ; and supplying practical aid. The engagement of industry will be relevant to the procedure of execution which includes presenting attractive nutrients that are low in concentrated fat and Na and those that have a higher ratio of whole grain to refined grain. Additionally, current methods for monitoring will steer the attempts of execution. The support recommended from the services of nutrient and nutrition include ; Practical support for continuously developing and bettering bill of fares, puting orders for suited nutrients and commanding the cost of these nutrients while continuing their quality. New methods for oversing the quality of repasts in the school that lay accent on meeting of import ordinances for diet. Activities of public wellness have well improved the quality and length of life all over the universe ( Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, 1999 ) . In certain, the reduced incidence and happening of infective disease has been a major accomplishment of public wellness. On the other manus, the advancement of the hereafter will be more debatable to accomplish and measuring the public bureaus ‘ wellness impact will be more hard. As stated by Jocelyn Elders, the former sawbones General of the United States, ‘public wellness is ill understood-perhaps because when it is effectual, nil happens ‘ ( Elders, 1995 ) . As there are a fluctuation in the intercessions and wellness impacts, the ability to place the activities of a wellness bureau that is straight lending its quota to the advancement is difficult to determine and is ever dependent on argument ( Coyne and Hilsenrath, 2002 ) . A set of three of import maps as stated above has been developed by the Federal Gove rnment ‘s Institute of Medicine in the USA. Not many surveies have made effort to mensurate the status of public wellness pattern in the USA as it is linked to the recommendation of the Institute of Medicine ( IOM, 1988 ) sing all three of import maps. Out of eight surveies that were ab initio conducted, four laid accent on section of local wellness ( Handler and Turnock, 1996 ; Scutchfield et al. , 1997 ) and the other four took an attack on province degree ( Halverson et al. , 1996 ) . Scott et al. , 1990 were the first squad to transport out a complete nose count based on the of import maps of public wellness indicated by the Institute of Medicine. Seven old ages subsequently, Scutchfield et al. , ( 1997 ) repeated the study done by Scott et al. , ( 1990 ) and found that the figure of bureaus involved in confidence and appraisal activities was in general, unchanged. On the other manus, the per centum of wellness bureaus in the province degree that are enthusiastically involved in policy development dropped from 72 % to 49 % within the same period. For policy development as it relates to particular issues, such as genetic sciences and the bar of disease ( Piper et al. , 2001 ) , states displayed even reduced degrees of activity. This means that in merely about half of the provinces, the maps of a formal policy development were absent even on the footing of self-report. In the research on direction, approaches bases on constellation are used to look at the relationship between public presentation, construction of the organisation and determination devising, and the strategic planning capablenesss of organisations. Additionally, a positive connexion between fiscal public presentation and systems constellation of strategic planning has been confirmed to be objectively ( Veliyath and Shortell, 1993 ) . On the other manus, no researches to day of the month hold made effort to separate constellations on non-monetary steps of success such as the results of health care. The highly indispensable characteristic of any constellation is specifying the planned intent of the organisations that are analyzed. From the position of public wellness, it is indispensable to measure the effects of the of import maps on the steps of population wellness position. Consequently, analytically associating the planning theoretical accounts of bureau to the appraisal of public wellness impact is a natural add-on of the methodological analysis of constellation. The section of wellness and human services in the US has recognized 10 taking wellness arrows and suggested that they should be used as steps of result because they â€Å" assist everyone understand the importance of wellness publicity and disease preventionaˆÂ ¦ developing schemes and action programs to turn to one or more of these indexs can hold a profound consequence on increasing the quality of life and extinguishing wellness disparities † ( US Department of Health and Human Services, 2000 ) . The chief wellness indexs are Physical activity Fleshiness Use of baccy Maltreatment of substance Sexual behaviour Mental wellness Violence and hurt Quality of the environment Immunization and Access to wellness attention Other research workers and organisations ( Sutocky et al. , 2000 ) have set up a directory of the wellness position of community utilizing similar steps for illustration, since 1989, the group called the UnitedHealth has formed annually studies that ranks the general province of wellness in all 50 provinces. The study gives a elaborate position of the wellness tendencies of the population across the US. The Markss are made to draw attending to critical steps that affects the wellness of the populace. Additionally, set uping the points into a individual variable permits an all inclusive comparing of general wellness advancement with the of import maps. Consequently, nailing relationships between the constellation of of import maps and the betterment of the wellness of the population is a relevant add-on to both research in public wellness and direction. Background In recent old ages the usage of Health Impact Assessment has been on the rise in the USA, energized by an increasing consciousness among professionals of transit, public wellness and planning that transit planning and land usage can hold a considerable impact on the wellness of the populace. Health Impact Assessment is an instrument to assist determination shapers and other contrivers better place the wellness result of the determinations they make. Health Impact Assessment is described as â€Å" a combination of processs, methods, and tools by which a policy, plan, or undertaking may be judged as to its possible effects on the wellness of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population † ( European Centre for Health Policy, 1999 ) . HIA have been loosely used in Europe and other topographic points ( Kemm, 2004 ) , and processs are the same in the United States and Europe. Furthermore, local illustrations are needed to increase the suitableness of pol itical relations, to increase consciousness of their usage round the state, to function as illustrations for farther Health Impact Assessment, to be used as theoretical accounts in United States based preparation class for Health Impact Assessment and to maintain record that Health Impact Assessment applies in the scenes of the U.S. Lesser resources may be needed to form new HIAs if research workers can draw the reappraisals of literature and methods from related Health Impact Assessments officially done in the United States, taking note of the fluctuations in domestic environment and specifications of undertaking and policy. For case, the analysis of wellness impact based on U.S. of extra income from a life salary order ( Bhatia and Katz, 2001 ; Cole et al. , 2005 ) may be of import as portion of the consequence of wellness analysis that is attributed to employment created by a new concern development in the United States ‘ informations on web between income and wellness from Europe will be non so applicable for such an analysis because of colliding economic, societal and political conditions. An adept squad in 2004 critically looked into the possibility for increased usage of HIAs in the United States and made suggestions on the following stairss that could better the usage of HIAs ( Dannenberg, 2006 ) . These stairss includes transporting out experimental HIA undertakings, making a database of Health Impact Assessment completed, griping up the capacity to develop people to transport out HIAs, developing motive to increase the demands for Health Impact Assessments by those who make determinations and developing practical methods for anticipations ( Dannenberg, 2006 )

Friday, August 16, 2019

Reflective Paper: Quality Systems, Control and Motivation Essay

Identify functional and dysfunctional control systems within your own organization. Dell believes that an effective strategy for improving quality and that it has achieved results in their organizations. The enterprise faces several issues on the road to long-term continuous improvement. This list of causes provides a checklist of organizational barriers which represent ongoing quality struggles for many quality organizations. This list can be broken down into three categories of quality problems: People problems which cover individuals not performing their jobs effectively, communication breakdowns, lack of teamwork/conflict, poorly trained workers and lack of worker input and commitment. Management problems which include improper supervision, conflicting/unrealistic goals, poor planning and organizing, lack of resources, and lack of top management support. Quality system problems which encompass ineffective corrective action procedures, people not aware that quality problems exist (ineffective feedback mechanisms), ineffective measurement procedures, unrealistic quality standards, and technology/equipment problems (Longenecker & Scazzero, 1993). I believe that taken together, long-term quality improvement efforts must address specific people, management and system problems that either develop or persist over time. In reviewing the specific examples of ongoing quality problems presented in the study, it is interesting to note the almost total absence of technical problems. Deming has observed that technical problems are often relatively easier to address where quality is concerned (Deming, 1984). The majority of problems are softer in nature: people and managerial factors. This supports the widely-held view that people and managerial issues are the key to long-term quality improvement and that these issues require an ongoing adjustment (alignment) in an organization’s overall operating culture and management practice. Interpret criteria for developing and evaluating control systems. In reviewing managerial perceptions of quality control and systems of Dell, a number of rather interesting paradoxes and contrasts emerge. First, managers strongly believe that TQM efforts improves quality, yet their organizations are not so likely to implement quality principles fully into their overall management philosophy and strategy. Second, while there are tools such as TQM that are perceived as effective in improving quality, enthusiasm and support for the process diminish with time. Third, while most managers admit that there is still room for improvement and that ongoing quality problems exist, I feel that Dell is less than completely focused on dealing with long-term quality problems. These factors are issues which all quality organizations must strive to address on a long-term basis and organizations would be well-served to consider the following lessons in the development and evaluation of quality control systems: The conduct an organizational audit of the current qualty system. Maturing quality organizations are well served to survey management personnel on the issues identified in their respective organisations to evaluate their present perception of the organization’s quality processes and the consequences of these perceptions. Dell managers should be surveyed first to assess their belief in the quality process and willingness to support this effort in both word and deed. Workers should then be surveyed to elicit their perceptions and input of the organization’s quality process to determining their support and confidence in the system. Such an audit permits the firm a chance to determine its status along the quality continuum and provides input on what procedure the firm must undertake to move forward in the quality system maturation process. The feedback garnered from this process can be an invaluable source of information and impetus for change. Dell management support/action is critical to long-term quality improvement. It is a well-documented fact that management support is needed to get any quality effort started. What is not always apparent is the necessity of the continued involvement and support managers must demonstrate to keep quality efforts viable. To this end, top management must make continuous improvement an ongoing priority for managers throughout the organization. Managers’ roles and duties must be specified with continuous improvement as part and parcel of every manager’s job description. Involvement in correction action teams, providing leadership on defining and refining quality standards, providing the resources necessary for improvement, developing and implementing feedback mechanisms and coaching are all critical elements of a manager’s job as a quality leader. Managers must be selected, trained, promoted, appraised, and rewarded on their ability to foster continuous improvement in their areas of responsibility within the organization. Without this focus, managers’ enthusiasm and support for quality will weaken over time creating less than positive role models for the rest of the organization. Remember that people are the key to long-term improvement. Technical problems are dealt with early on in the quality process, overall. Based on Longenecker & Scazzero’s (1993) study, it is   suggested that long-term improvement is built on systematically considering the â€Å"human side of quality†. Towards this goal, employees across levels are required to be aptly led by their superiors. In addition,   employees need to be properly trained to perform their jobs, need to develop effective problem-solving/conflict-resolution skills, need effective communication skills, and to be taught how to function in team oriented cultures. Moreover, employee input must be systematically tapped by managers on issues which affect both continuous improvement and the workplace. Feedback and coaching for the individual is paramount for overall Dell quality efforts to progress. In summary, practice and research indicate that workers are the critical ingredients in long-term quality improvement and that they respond favourably when given proper support and leadership. The human component cannot be shrugged off or neglected without negative outcomes. Dell quality systems must continuously improve TQM. Once an efficient improvement system is established within an organization, quality will be improved. Yet, even the most effective systems must undergo transition and mature with the dynamic demands associated and with changing organizational needs. This indicates that systematic approaches to long-term quality improvement must be occasionally critiqued and feedback provided to improve quality improvement systems. Towards this objective, corrective action procedures must be changed and streamlined, feedback mechanisms must be constantly assessed and enhanced, quality standards must evolve and measurement procedures must be meaningful and cost-efficient. Without adjustments, these quality systems can serve as obstacles rather than assist quality improvement and be perceived as barriers to improvement. Moreover, technical improvements must be made to operating systems to keep them viable and technologically up-to-date. If quality systems fail to practise continuous improvement, the outcomes for the firm will be both negative and ironic. At the individual level, a number of reflective queries are in order for us operating in stable and mature quality international organizations such as Dell: Am I practising continuous improvement on an ongoing basis? Am I encouraging my subordinates to practise the principles of TQM through my actions? Am I providing leadership in addressing ongoing/persistent quality problems? Am I providing leadership to improve our existing quality improvement processes? Are we using corrective action procedures in an effective and efficient manner? (Longenecker & Scazzero, 1993) These are issues that TQM managers must be reflect on a personal basis. The responses to these questions are crucial and represent an authentic evaluation of a firm’s leadership commitment to long-term continuous improvement. In conclusion, TQM systems were believed to be effective by practising managers in this global research. And yet, these systems require constant support and leadership to sustain their effectiveness in the long term. Moreover, literature indicate that it is worthwhile to assess the perceptions of practising managers to identify the status and needs for an ongoing TQM process. We can learn that while achieving long-term quality improvement is a noble goal, a host of barriers exist that threaten this process. Without a commitment to eliminate these barriers, and to the practice of TQM, quality improvement for international organisations is threatened. The outcome is a quality improvement process hoped for by competitors that will lose its effectiveness through time. Hard earned quality gains can be futile without constant persisitence and diligence from all organizational members. It is for this reason that quality will always be a strategic tool in the global marketplace because the quality achievements of yesterday mean little to our competitors and customers. Analyze and illustrate the essentials of quality management and the techniques that are associated with it One manager has shared his lament on the practice of total quality management, as follows: â€Å"The problem isn’t that we don’t know what to do but rather that we struggle to do what we know we should do on a daily basis where our quality improvement process is concerned †¦ and we’ve been at TQM for over six years already† (Longenecker & Scazzero, 1993). The exercise of total quality management TQM) as a strategy for gaining competitive advantage has been adopted by an increasing number of international organisations, and has somehow evolved to become a competitive mandate. The assumption of TQM is quite apparent: quality improvement can be attained if a firm drafts a management philosophy of continuous improvement and breeds the required best practices (Juran, 1993). Gradually and patiently, majority of international organisations have been effective at the implementation of quality practices during the previous decade, with more than satisfactory outcomes. For instance, United Parcel Service, Motorola, Ford, Cadillac, Nestlà ©, Airbus, Shell, Toyota and Phillips are some of the more popular TQM achievers in the global marketplace. However, it may be worthy to note that their quality practices took substantial time and patience to conceptualise, draft, and implement. Much more so, was the time necessary for these best practices to mature and to be maintained. Quality gurus such as Deming, Juran, Scholtes and Crosby taught that organisations ought to adopt a quality improvement approach from a long-term perspective. They also gave a warning that attaining some quality improvement may somewhat lead to complacency. Moreover, they concur that obstacles to quality may include a whole host of factors, encompassing both novel and current organisationa issues (Walton, 1986). Quality experts contend that majority of quality enhancement research are inclined on concentrating on the initial start-up phase of the improvement process and is somewhat lacking on considering long-term challenges (Mann & Kehoe, 1995). Studies on organisational life cycles and organisational development has apparently illustrated that as firms grow, mature, and grow more stable, several issues are brought forth at each cycle of the phase. Certain quality gurus hold a similar perspective on the   quality improvement cycle that exists as the firm proceeds through an initial start-up, followed by a development phase at which maturity as a quality firm ensues (Harrington, 1987). The initial quality start-up phase necessitates breaking exercises the organisation has been accustomed to, and applying critical quality practices. Moreover, this phase calls for the development of an organisational framework that will allow the systematic resolution of quality issues and building credibility for the improvement process (Harrington, 1987). The TQM development phase necessitates that the firm build on initial successes, expand the degree of organization involvement, developing better â€Å"systems† to support quality improvement efforts and refining corrective action procedures. The TQM maturity phase is distinguished by TQM practices being strongly anchored on in organizational strategy and planning, management decision making, human resource practices and support systems improvement. The foundational practices of total quality management must be focused on and refined at each phase of the TQM cycle for the organization to become increasingly effective at continuous improvement. This enhanced proficiency at improving quality is imperative since quality standards and expectations are constantly increasing in the ultra-competitive global market (Gehari, 1993). Summarizing these points, firms must learn and mature on an ongoing basis to preclude quality processes from being stagnant or even becoming ineffective over time. Deming has argued that management complacency and a lack of organizational discipline can prevent improvement efforts from maturing and developing to the next level (Deming, 1982). Juran has argued that these same tendencies can cause even the best TQM systems to break down with the passage of time and changes in key personnel (Juran, 1988). Previous research has demonstrated the painstaking and labour-intensive challenges of properly implementing TQM practices (Juran, 1988). Once these practices are in place and quality begins to improve, it is easy for an organization to become complacent or lose focus several years into the quality improvement process. Deming (1982) has advocated that effective and long-term quality improvement requires the following: A belief on the part of managers that their TQM process is effective; A belief on the part of managers that there is still a need for improvement; A commitment on the part of all organizational members to practise TQM on an ongoing basis; The ability to focus on and respond to long-term quality problems; Maintaining organizational support for TQM efforts; and Integrating TQM into the organization’s management philosophy and strategy. The manager’s lament in our opening quote succinctly summarized this concern when he stated, â€Å"it isn’t that we don’t know what to do [to improve quality] but rather we struggle to do what we know we should do on a daily basis†. In my work at Dell, I need to continuously ensure that I live quality, especially since I have external customer encounters each day. This is a core facet of my job. These quality principles are vital to the successful performance of my function, and also determines the degree of quality by which I execute it. At a personal level, I strive to live quality both in my professional and personal life; that is, I am keenly aware that the outcomes in my life are determined by the quality of the decisions I make. References Deming, W.E. (1982). Quality and productivity and competitive position. Cambridge, MA: MIT. Deming, W.E. (1984). Out of the crisis. Cambridge, MA: MIT. Gehari, R.R. (1993). Quality value chain – a meta-synthesis of frontiers of quality movement. Academy of Management Executive, 7(2), 29-42. Harrington, H.J. (1987). The improvement process. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Juran, J. (1988). Juran on planning for quality. New York, NY: Free Press. Juran, J. (1993). Made in USA: a Renaissance in quality. Harvard Business Review, July-August 1993, 42-50. Longenecker, C.O., Scazzero, J.A. (1993). Total quality management from theory to practice: a case study. International Journal of Reliability & Quality Management, 10(5), 24-31. Mann, R. & Kehoe, D. (1995). Factors affecting the implementation and success of TQM. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 12 (1). Walton, M. (1986). The Deming management method. New York, NY: Perigee Books.